Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (2023)

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  • Introduction
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Far-Side, In-Lane Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (1)

In-lane stops at the far side of an intersection confer the highest priority to transit operations at most signalized intersections.

Far-side in-lane stops are generally the preferred stop configuration where transit lanes or transitways are present.

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Far-side placement confers benefits especially at complex intersections, heavy turn volumes, and where the bus turns.

Ben Baldwin, Heather Boll, Alan Lehto, Jessica Tump, and Young Park. Bus Stops Guidelines. TriMet, Portland(2010).

Continue bike facilities behind the stop.

By allowing buses to move in a straight line, in-lane stops eliminate both pull-out time and traffic re-entry time, a source of delay and unreliable service. In-lane stops are especially valuable on streets operating at or near vehicle capacity, or on streets with long signal cycles, in which transit vehicles may experience long re-entry delays while waiting for traffic to clear.

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Assuming buses require a 7-second critical gap to remerge, each 100 vehicles per hour in the adjacent travel lane adds roughly a second of delay-—100 vph adds 1 second of delay, 500 vph adds 4 seconds, and 1,000vph adds roughly 12 seconds of delay on remerge. The TCQSM also assumes a pull-in maneuver requires 3.3 seconds, equating to more than 15 seconds of additional dwell time on a street with 1,000 vph where the bus is required to pull-out to stop.

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“Ch 6, Bus Transit Capacity.”TCQSM, 3rd Ed. (2013).

In-lane stops reduce wear on transit vehicles and street infrastructure by avoiding lane shifts during braking.

At signalized intersections, far-side stops allow transit vehicles to clear an intersection before stopping.

Far-side stops support the use of a broad array of active transit signal priority treatments with relatively simple infrastructure, since transit vehicle approaches can be anticipated based on typical approach speeds.

At intersections where transit vehicles turn, use far-side stops to simplify transit turns and allow pedestrians to better anticipate turning movements.

On single-lane streets where in-lane stops are most needed, far-side in-lane stops in mixed traffic may result in traffic behind the bus spilling back into the crosswalk and intersection. At these locations, provide a longer far-side stop that accommodates queued vehicles behind the stopped transit vehicle, or activate an early red phase after the transit vehicle clears the intersection.

Far-Side, Pull-Out Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (2)

Far-side pull-out stops use intersection space efficiently, with little impact on general traffic if they are wide enough for a bus to pull completely out of traffic. Among pull-out configurations, far-side stops are preferred.

A far-side pull-out configuration shortens the transition distance needed along the stop platform. Buses can shift to the right while crossing the intersection.

A periodic pull-out stop on streets with primarily in-lane stops allows vehicles to pass while a bus is stopped.

Buses may be significantly delayed in re-entering the travel lane on high-volume streets. On routes where buses have difficulty merging back into traffic, buses often pull out of the travel lane only partially to avoid being blocked.

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Additionally, in constrained situations, buses may also be compelled to pull in so that the front and back of the bus overhang the sidewalk on entry and exit, creating a hazard for pedestrians.

Accessible bus stop design guidance. Bus Priority Team technical advice note BP1/06, Transport for London (2006).

Pull-out stops can be used for local stops adjacent to offset or curbside transit lanes to allow rapid services to pass local services.

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Pull-out stops create additional space to receive left-turning transit vehicles and trucks.

Far-side pull-out stops work well with queue jumps designed as bus-only approach lanes or shared right-turn lanes that advance transit vehicles into the stop.

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Traffic modeling was used to demonstrate that moving a stop from near- to far-side alone changed travel times more than 4%; implementing with TSP and a queue bypass lane further amplified travel time reductions with the far-side configuration.

Kittelson & Associates, Inc.Effect of Transit Preferential Treatments on Vehicle Travel Time.ITE Mid-Colonial District Annual Meeting(2015).

Near-Side, In-Lane Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (3)

Near-side stops at the approach to an intersection can facilitate in-lane stops in mixed-traffic lanes, where turning movements and queued vehicles behind transit vehicles do not block the intersection.

At stop-controlled locations with only one travel lane in each direction, near-side in-lane stops eliminate “double-stopping.”

Where a high volume of vehicles turn onto the transit street, locating a stop near-side keeps the far side of the intersection clear to receive turns.

Where very high right turn volumes are present, an in-lane stop can be located on an island between the transit lane and right turn lane.

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If a large number of vehicles turn behind the stopped transit vehicle at a far-side location, they will likely block the intersection, resulting in traffic congestion and delay.

“Part 7:Station, Stop, and Terminal Capacity.”TCQSM, 2nd Ed. (2013).

Prohibit vehicles from entering opposing lanes to pass stopped transit vehicles. Place near-side stops close enough to the intersection that right-turning vehicles cannot merge in front of stopped transit vehicles.

Near-side stops may be employed with center-running transit lanes; center-boarding islands at near-side enable simpler pedestrian access at crosswalks.

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Continue bike facilities behind the stop.

When applied with transit signal progressions, near-side and far-side stops can be alternated to reduce intersection delay.

Near-Side, Pull-Out Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (4)

Near-side pull-out stops favor motor vehicle traffic flow, and confer limited benefits to transit operations. At high traffic volume locations, the near-side stop functions as a right-turn lane when buses are not present.

When used as queue jump lanes with active transit signal priority, near-side stops can enhance operations at high-traffic-volume intersections.

Buses may have significant difficulty re-entering the traffic stream. Signal measures, such as upstream early red phases, can address this issue.

Near-side stops can be used to facilitate transfer between two intersecting routes.

A near-side pull-out stop should be set back from the crosswalk at least 15 feet. Stops located just before the crosswalk can block the visibility of pedestrians.

Except for transfer points, near-side pull-out stops are not generally preferred on multi-lane streets, but may be applied if a major near-side destination exists, or if problematic conditions such as driveways or missing sidewalks exist at the far-side location.

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Near-side stops may facilitate destination access, boarding during red signal phases, and legible transfers in certain contexts, but generally favor vehicle traffic.

KFH Group. Guidelines for the Design and Placement of Transit Stops. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC (2009).

In cities with yield-to-bus/yield-to-streetcar rules and high compliance, broader implementation of near-side pull-out stops is possible.

Place near-side stops close enough to the intersection that right-turning vehicles cannot merge in front of the bus.

Near-side stops present challenges at intersections with transit route turns. If buses are required to turn right from the curbside, provide a signal phase for the transit movement, or design the cross street to accommodate a vehicle sweeping across the second lane or the oncoming lane.

Mid-Block, In-Lane Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (5)

In-lane mid-block configurations use significantly less curb length than mid-block pull-out stops.

Signalized or traffic-calmed pedestrian crossings should be provided at mid-block stops.

Mid-block stops are applicable where large destinations justify high-volume access.

Continue bicycle facilities behind the stop.

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Mid-Block, Pull-Out Stop

Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration | National Association of City Transportation Officials (6)

Mid-block pull-out stops are located more than 200 feet from intersections, and provide destination access on long blocks with mid-block crossings.

Use mid-block stops where traffic conditions at intersections would create safety issues for stopping buses or riders.

Mid-block pull-out stops may be applicable at heavy intermodal transfer points, or transit vehicle layover points.

Ensure that adequate curbside space exists to maneuver buses in and out of stops.

Signalized or traffic-calmed pedestrian crossings should be provided at mid-block stops.

Where safe pedestrian crossings cannot be provided, mid-block stops are a last resort.


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References for Stop Placement & Intersection Configuration: 4 found.


Why do we need a bus stop? ›

Bus stops prevent passengers from trying to board or alight in hazardous situations such as at intersections or where a bus is turning and is not using the curb lane. A bus driver cannot be expected to continuously look for intending passengers.

What is transit stop? ›

(ˈtrænzɪt stɒp ) a stop made by a vehicle such as an aircraft, train or bus on the way to its final destination.

What is Person throughput? ›

While street performance is conventionally measured based on vehicle traffic throughput and speed, measuring the number of people moved on a street—its person throughput and capacity—presents a more complete picture of how a city's residents and visitors get around.

What is transit design? ›

Transportation Design or Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance of automobiles by developing the visual appearance and creating the product concept. It also deals with the study of aircraft, spacecraft or marine vessels.

What is a bus stop called? ›

Word forms: bus shelters.

What should a bus stop have? ›

They should be designed to accommodate the maximum number of passengers normally waiting, and to provide adequate protection from the weather. They should be well lit and ventilated, and approaching buses should be visible from inside the shelter. Where waiting times may be long it may be desirable to provide seating.

How many types of stops are there? ›

The six English stop sounds—/b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /k/, /g/—initially appear simple, but quickly reveal intricate details as learners become more familiar with their characteristics. At the beginning of the stop sounds, the tongue or lips briefly block the air from leaving the vocal tract.

Is a stop same as transit? ›

Another point of confusion is layover vs stopover or transit. Once again, a layover is a stop that lasts less than 24 hours, while a stopover lasts 24 hours or more. On the other hand, Transit is simply the act of returning to the same aircraft after your layover at the airport.

What does transiting without stopping mean? ›

You are in transit if you return to the same aircraft after your brief stopover at the airport and continue on your journey. In such cases, usually only one ticket is issued.

What is passenger car unit used for? ›

Passenger car equivalent (PCE) or passenger car unit (PCU) is a metric used in transportation engineering, to assess traffic-flow rate on a highway.

What is road throughput? ›

Throughput is defined as the number of distinct vehicles (or people) able to enter or exit the system during the analysis period.

What are the objectives and advantages of implementing TOD? ›

TOD increases the accessibility of the transit stations by creating pedestrian and Non-Motorised Transport (NMT) friendly infrastructure that benefits large number of people, thereby increasing the ridership of the transit facility and improving the economic and financial viability of the system.

Why is transit oriented development important? ›

Focusing growth around transit stations capitalizes on public investments in transit and provides many benefits, including: increased ridership and associated revenue gains for transit systems. incorporation of public and private sector engagement and investment. revitalization of neighborhoods.

How do I become a transportation designer? ›

A stimulating and inspiring world of technological experimentation for future designers.
  1. Three Years Diploma. Transportation Design and Mobility. ...
  2. Three Years Diploma. Transportation Design and Mobility. ...
  3. Specialization courses. Transportation Design and Mobility. ...
  4. Master Programs. ...
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  6. Four Years Diploma.

What are the 3 types of buses? ›

Three types of bus are used.
  • Address bus - carries memory addresses from the processor to other components such as primary storage and input/output devices. ...
  • Data bus - carries the data between the processor and other components. ...
  • Control bus - carries control signals from the processor to other components.

What is the difference between bus stop and bus station? ›

A bus station is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop. It may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue.

What is a bus stop waiting area called? ›

Bus shelters provide an enclosed waiting area for people preparing to ride the bus. Large shelters are common at major transfer stations, where a lot of people will wait to change buses or board a bus, or they may be found at central bus stations where people can take a variety of bus routes.

Who invented the bus stop? ›

The first real bus stop

It wasn't until 1829 that we saw the first official bus stop in Britain. This was the year that George Shillibeer began his Omnibus service in London. His route ran between Cornhill and Paddington, and he instituted designated stops along the way.

Why did the bus stop for the second time? ›

Answer: the bus stopped for the second time because the engine broke down.

What makes a good bus shelter? ›

They should be low maintenance, vandal resistant and offer comfortable, practical seating for passengers who require assistance while they wait. Bus Shelters can add interest to the area by adding information about local events, or showcasing local arts or successes.

What is a bus stop called in England? ›

A bus station in the US or a coach station in the UK, is similar to a railway station, where you can catch a bus/coach for several destinations.


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